Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)

Know someone who thinks SMRs aren’t real yet and there aren’t that many designs? Just send them the link to this page.

Small Modular Reactors are nuclear power plants which are typically less than 300 MWe. While this is smaller than the conventional 1,000 MWe power plants in operation all over the world today, it still means they’re massive power plants. They have historically been promised as a way for the nuclear industry to innovate and improve by shortening construction timelines, improving manufacturing practices, and reducing initial development and capital costs.

A detailed and thorough article about SMRs may be helpful, but it’s not efficient at communicating large amounts of information – and there are a lot of SMRs. Which ones are the best? Where are they being built? Which companies are building them?

I’ve worked to put together a table answering many of those questions utilizing the World Nuclear Association’s post on SMRs as the backbone for the data. It’s certainly not complete, but it covers many of the historical designs as well as those in development or operation all over the world.

If you find an error or find something missing, comment! Or send me a note privately and ask me to update it.

The IAEA also has an awesome tool available for advanced reactors, but it’s not specific to SMRs.

Notes on using this tool:

  • The search function is invaluable. Try searching “NuScale” or “FNR”.
  • The format of this table currently imperfect.

SMR Table

DesignTypeCountryCompanyWebsiteDescriptionMWtMWeStatusConstruct BeginOnlineFuelEnrichmentRe-Fuel Interval (years)Design Life (years)Thermal Power (GJ/h)Burnup (GWD/t)CoolingWeight (tonnes)d_reactor (m)l_reactor (m)Cap $/kWeLCOE FOAK ($/MWh)LCOE NOAK ($/MWh)PartnersAcronym Description
Adams EngineHTGCRUSAAdams Atomic Engineshttps://atomicinsights.comDerived from icebreakers. Variant is KLT-20, designed for refueling every 10 years. One of the first private SMR designs put forward by Rod Adams in 1995. 10Shelved80Forced circulation & convection for emergency
Integral Fast Reactor, ARC-100FNRUSAAdvanced Reactor Concepts LLChttps://www.arcenergy.coReplacing KLT reactors260100LEU; can burn waste from LWR or Pu10.1% - 17.2%20Forced circulation & convection for emergency260014.616
STAR-LM, STAR-H2, SSTARFNRUSAArgonne National Lab400175U15Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor
SSTARFNRUSAArgonne National Lab4520U25Natural circulation6404.62328508258FluorSmall Sealed Transportable Autonomous Reactor
mPowerLWRUSABabcock & Wilcox (B&W) promised $226MM in 2012; paid $111MM
"Expects design cert by 2018 and operational by 2022?"
Struggled finding funding…
Project shelved. $375MM spent on program by 2016.
500195CancelledLEU0.04956035Water cooled, but 155 MWe air-cooled version also planned204.523Bechtel
BWXT Advanced Nuclear Reactor (BANR)HTGCRUSABWXTPassive safety - no operator intervention for 7 days.
Daily load following from 20% to 100% (5% change per minute)
Continuous load changes of +/- 10% power at 2% per minute
Passed NRC safety evaluation in 2015, but no customers so not moving forward
509.827SNPTC (China)
Mark 1 Pebble Bed FHRMSRUSAConsortium barge to move. Desalinates 40,000 m^3/day. 236100Natural circulation; water cooled6008.513
Elysium MCSFRMSRUSAElysium Industrieshttps://www.elysiumindustries.com30001200HALEU0.152.811.2Daewoo Shipbuilding & Engineering
Flibe LFTRMSRUSAFlibe Energy500,000 m^3/day desal
Enter design pre-licensing phase with ASN in 2022.
1 billion euros promised for project.
Essentially a PWR reactor for French Navy
BWRX-300LWRUSAGE Hitachi Nuclear Energy under CNNC - China National Nuclear Corporation
Passive safety. Installed underground. Seismic tollerance of 300 gal.
Whole steam supply system shipped in single module
12000 m^3 desal
Construction = 5 years
300Advanced Design20282.15CNNC, NPIC, and CNPE (China Nuclear Power Engineeirng)
PRISM, NatriumFNRUSAGE Hitachi Nuclear EnergyNo operator required for 7 days
Installed below grade
Cap150 version is earlier version
840311Advanced Design41224000160Prism Reactor Innovated Small Module
Gen4 (Hyperion) Power ModuleFNRUSAGen4 Energy / Hyperion PowerPassive cooling; operate at 310C;70250.197510Passive4.417
TRIGALWRUSAGeneral Atomics cooling; operate at 310C; announced building in Bohai Shipyard in Huludao in 2016, but no news since.6416.40.21.5Passive2.57.4
GT-MHRHTGCRUSAGeneral Atomics200 t/d desal
29,800 t displacement. True floating nuclear power plant (FNPP)
3501500.15522029163Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor
EM^2HTGCRUSAGeneral AtomicsSubmerged 15 km offshore reactor. Project cancelled500265301200015100Energy Multiipler Module
GA-Framatome Fast Modular ReactorHTGCRUSAGeneral AtomicsAnnual maintenance campaign, but otherwise super simiple. 5020329Natural circulation180GA-EMS = Electromagnetic Systems Group
Holos-Quad HTRHTGCRUSAHolosGenhttp://www.holosgen.comBWR2213TRISO0.152060
Holtec SMR-160LWRUSAHoltec International & SMR Inventechttps://holtecinternational.comTarget year to start license by 2020, but design dropped?525160Advanced Design2017Uranium Dioxide280Kyoto University, Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC). Funded by METI
Hybrid SMR ConceptHTGCRUSAHybrid Power Technologies LLChttps://www.hybridpwr.comAssembled in 500 days
Working to partner with the US, Jordan, Turkey, and Czech
Designed 3 gens of naval reactors since 1950s and SIR of 330 Mwe in 1980s
6008504.511.3510045.85Assystem, Atkins, BAM Nuttall, Laing O'Rourke, National Nuclear Laboratory, Nuclear AMRC, Jacobs, The Welding Institue, and Exelon
Sodium cooled fast reactorsFNRUSAINL; Experimental Breeder ReactorOperates at relatively low temp; PWR, but pool type62.51919631963SNF30Water + perfluorocarbonEBR-II
Kairos Power FHR and HermesMSRUSAKairos Powerhttps://kairospower.comFull safety test performed in 2004. Wow!3201402026TRISO particles0.1975HeliumFlouride High Temp Reactor
ThorCon MSRMSRUSAMartingale / ThorConhttps://thorconpower.comConcept design complete in 2015; detailed engineering design complete in 2018. Calling for bids to construct.550250U-233 & LEU U-2350.1974OKBM Afrikantov is designer; Atomproekt is architect general; SRI Luch involved in fuel design.
MicroNuclear Molten Salt BatteryMSRUSAMicroNuclear LLChttps://micronucleartech.comFits on 4 ha site
Rapid load following of 25% to 100%
Fuel just used once
In talks of replacing coal-fired capacity with 4-pack installs including South Carolina Electricity & Gas (SCEG)
2016 GAIN award of $53MM
2021: 7 year, $2.4B project with ARDP to build Xe-100 in WA
2017: Signed agreement with Jordan AEC
2020: Initiated vendor design review w/ CNSC (Kinetrics leading efforts)
2016: signed agreement to work with Southern Nuclear Operating Company to develop resepective designs.
2018: design 50% complete. Finalized by 2022 or 2023
2019 w/ Global Nuclear Fuel setup HALEU TRISO production at Wilmington plant
Also talking to Centrus Energy to dev TRISO fab tech and w/ Tokai in Japan
20LEU - UF40.0510HeliumBWX Technology, Oregon State University, Teledyne-Brown Engineering, SGL Group, INL, and ORNL. Also Burns & McDonnel Engineering in 2016MsNB
NuScale Power ModuleLWRUSANuScalehttps://www.nuscalepower.com47% thermal efficiency
100,000 t/yr of H2 production
Originally used to burn weapons Pu
Can be powered completely with transuranics from LWRs
Smaller verion (RS-MHR = Remote Site Modular Helium Reactor) proposed
25077Licensing2029LEU0.0495260OKBM Afrikantov & Fuji. Areva formerly involved
NuScale microreactorHPMRUSANuScalehttps://www.nuscalepower.com53% net thermal efficiency
Can use recycled fuel
Building 4 in 42 months
12 year development & licensing period.
10LicensingEntirely passiveChicago Bridge & Iron, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and INL
AHTR/FHRMSRUSAOak Ridge National Labhttps://www.ornl.gov20% per min load following
Separate group from GA's Energy Group developing EM^2
Best known for EM aircraft launch & recovery systems on US Aircraft carriers.
12550TRISO particles0.19754FramatomeAdvanced Hight Temperature Reactor
AuroraHPMRUSAOklohttps://oklo.comRequires no skill to operate. Larger version that is 1 Mwe1.52026HALEU U-Zr202026.5Mitsubishi Research Institute and funded by JAERI
DEER from RadixLWRUSARadix Power & Energy Corporationhttps://www.radixeng.comCorrosion is the problem. Only capable with current metallurgy up to 650 C. Also yields toxic polonium (alpha-emitter with 138 day half-life). Pb-Bi melts at 125 C and boils at 1670 C.
Russia released a bunch of classified info in 1998 about submarines. Interest incresed then.
50TRIGA pepple or TRISODeployable Electric Energy Reactor
Molten Chloride Fast ReactorMSRUSASouthern Company ServicesPortable nuclear batttery pack based on Russian sub design.2026
NatriumFNRUSATerraPowerhttps://www.terrapower.com2 MWt pilot plant planned840500?4122Primary: FLiBe
Secondary: BeF2-NaF
Prism Reactor Innovated Small Module
Transatomic PowerMSRUSATransatomic Power (TAP)http://www.transatomicpower.comFormed by nuke consultant and Director of Nuclear Engineering at Ohio State university and University of Idaho.1250550LEU - UF40.05Fl, Na, Li
USNC MMRHTGCRUSAUltra Safe Nuclear Corporation (UNSC)https://usnc.comFunded by Founders Fund. Cease operations in Sep 2018 and make IP free online.30102023202520Primary: LiF
Secondary: FLiNaK
Micro Modular Reactor
Westinghouse SMRLWRUSAWestinghouse and cheaper version of Moltex reactor. Contract signed with New Brunswick Power for deployment at Point Lepreau in Canada. 800225LEU0.05260Primary: ZrF4-KF
Secondary: Nitrate Salt
New Brunswick Power
Westinghouse LFRFNRUSAWestinghouse by Core Power for UK marine use. Few other details available. Several awards from grants from DOE.300TerraPower, INL, Core Power, Orano Federal Services, EPRI, and 3M Company.Lead-cooled Fast Reactor
Westinghouse eVinciHPMRUSAWestinghouse to load follow. Range of sizes available. Passive safety. Negative temperature and void coefficients. Incredible newsletter. Crowdfunding Q1 2022. 1.62022UO340
Xe-100HTGCRUSAX-energyx-energy.com200802027HALEU TRISOContinuous60160
Xe-MobileHTGCRUSAX-energyx-energy.comFirst Danish investment into fission research since ban on nuclear power in 1985. First full-scale prototype power barge by 2025.533Fuel Salt: Li-7 Fl
Secondary Salt: FLiNaK
Moltex SSRMSRUKMoltex Energyhttps://www.moltexenergy.comPhase 1 design approval completed with CNSC in 2019.
CNSC environmental assessment began 2019.
2020: signed with Hyundai Engineering and Korea AERI to do a project.
2020: Signed with Poland's Synthos and applied to Polish govt for financing industrial scale hydrogen projects.
2021: U of Illinois announces plan to install MMR as power source and research reactor at Urbana-Champaign campus.
2018: CNL launched SMR review (separate from CNSC) to have SMR constructed at Chalk River by 2026. GFP/OPG/USNC. Online by 2025. Followed by one at INL and Uof Ill
Also building renewable project with 10 MMR units for 120 MWe of generation and 1 TWh per year for remote defence basis. Power cost $10/MWh
150Helium to molten saltGlobal First Power (Jointly owned by UNSC and Ontario Power Generation)Stable Salt Reactor
Moltex SSR-W300MSRUKMoltex Energyhttps://www.moltexenergy.comRuns independent organic Rankine cycle. Subcritical Power Modules (SPMs) go critical by spacing. Rapid load following. 650 - 850 deg C. 7503002030+25% PuCl3, 30%UCl3, and 45% KCl200Helium5769.2307692308Argonne National Laboratory & US ArmyStable Salt Reactor
Rolls-Royce SMRLWRUKRolls-RoyceVery easily portable. Sealed, no moving parts. Planned in 2010 to submit design cert to NRC in 2012. But.. What happened? 2012 changed name to Gen4 Power? Went out of business on 4/1/18 after missing grants from DOE in Jan 2016.135047020300.049526060Lead1.52.5
U-BatteryHTGCRUKUrencoRefueling online. Spent canisters cooled in pool for a year, then salt freezes. Reprocessing is simple and possible. Multiple versions: SSR-W (Wasteburner), SSR-U, and SSR-Th (Thorium). GridReserve version has heat storage. SSR-W is simplest and cheapest.10420280.25Primary: 60% NaCl, 20% PuCl2, 20% UCl3
Coolant: ZrF4-KF-NaF
Decay Heat: Natural convection
Supercritical CO2 Direct Cycle Fast Reactor ConceptHTGCRUKPassive shut down and decay heat removal. Awarded $629MM cost share program from DOE (DOE share $303MM). TVA helps with engineering, ops, licensing support for Hermes. TVA has early site permit at Clinch River site. 2021 submitted prelim safety analysis report to NRC.Primary: FLiBe
Secondary: FLiNaK
Oak Ridge National Lab and TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)
SEALERFNRSwedenLeadCold Reactors (Blykalla Reaktorer)Based on UK's Dragon reactor from 1975.
Based on design of Fort St. Vrain reactor in USA - wow!
Produce 750 ℃ process heat or 4 MWe back-up & off-grid power.
Awarded contract for feasibility study by UK govt in 2018 for Advanced Reactor Feasibility and Development project. 2020 went into phase 2.
Selected for CNSC review in 2017 and first design (in 2019) to complete 4 phases of CNL's review process for siting an SMR at Chalk River Labs in Ontario
832030Uo0.230HeliumConsortium, but TU-Delft & Manchester University. Also Wood, Laing O'Rourke, Cammell Laird, and KinectricsSwedish Advanced Lead Reactor
SMART from KAERILWRSouth KoreaKAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Intitute)30 MWt started up in 1998.
Main purpose was producing hydrogen from water.
3301002028LEU0.04360HeliumToshiba/IHI and FujiSystem-Integraded Modular Advanced Reactor
Korean Fast Reactor DesignsFNRSouth KoreaKAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Intitute)Building EH HTGR in 2019352060HeliumJAEA & Penultimate Power
BANDI-60SLWRSouth KoreaKepco Engineering & ConstructionRationale: replace conventional reactor tech for power and provide for future hydrogen production.
INET in charge of R&D
43.7% thermal efficiency targeted
Capital cost could be as low as 50% to 75% of small HTR-PM
Flexible loads (40 - 100%); no loss of thermal efficiency, and rapid change in power settings.
2006056035Helium5.725150050China Nuclear Engineering & Construction (CNEC) (32.5%); Tsinghua University's INET (20%)
PBMR and derivativesHTGCRSouth AfricaPBMR Ltd consortium led by Eskomhttps://www.thorium100.comUses electromagnetic pumps. Inactive license application at the NRC. Also has a L-4S version (lead bismuth cooled version)200802030Continuous90Sodium1.22.5250050SSTAR & Westinghouse
SVBR-100FNRRussiaAKME-engineering280100U-Pu0.163860Lead-bismuth fast reactor
VVER-300 (V-478)LWRRussiaGidropressCompletion of technical design by ~202485030031Natural circulation815Water-Water Energetic Reactor
VK-300LWRRussiaNIKIETSupercharges a natural gas turbine for 85% efficiency
Applied for 2nd round of DOE funding in 2013.
BREST-300FNRRussiaNIKIETSecondary circuit - not actual reactor7003002026U+Pu0.1356
Russian HTR for IndonesiaHTGCRRussiaNukem TechnologiesStopped funding in 2010
Most staff emigrated to USA and joined X-energy
105.915Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
KLT-40SLWRRussiaOKBM AfrikantovDownloaded PDFOperated for 30 years. Also referred to as Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)150352019LEU0.18641245Sodium
RITM-200M, RITM-200NLWRRussiaOKBM AfrikantovDownloaded PDFGE's solution to closing fuel cycle. Capable of breeding fissile plutonium. GE & TerraPower building fast reactor for INL (Versatile Test Reactor, VTR). Also building Natrium concept.1755020242028LEU0.19991260730Southern Nuclear Operating Company, High Bridge Energy Development Co., Excelon, and URS Nuclear
VBER-150LWRRussiaOKBM AfrikantovPart of DOE's Advanced Reactor Demonstration Program (ARDP). Cost sharing program. License application submit in 2026. $1B estimated.350110LEU4.750Primary: Sodium
Secondary: molten salt; can store heat and use it to make steam in heat exchanger.
Southern Nuclear Operating Company, High Bridge Energy Development Co., Excelon, and URS Nuclear, Bechtel
VBER-300LWRRussiaOKBM AfrikantovCan load follow and operate with 40% thermal efficiency. Can be paired with supercritical CO2 tertiary circuit. Working on licensing with CNSC. 2019 done with pre-licensing. 2021 offered the design to Energoatom in Ukraine.917325LEU4.95660190012550GEH, New Brunswick Power, Moltex
ABV, ABV-6MLWRRussiaOKBM AfrikantovSodium cooled at 530 C and operating since 2010.4518LEU0.197124095
UNITHERMLWRRussiaResearch and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE)Russia has 70 reactor-years experience. Can't generate weapons grade Pu. Fuel can be recycled indefinitely. Part of Pilot Demonstration Energy Complex (PDEC). Enables fully closed fuel cycle on one site.306.6Concept2525Lead
SHELFLWRRussiaResearch and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE)80 reactor years experience with 7 subs in Russia (155 MWt Pb-Bi). Project dropped in 2018??2810ConceptLEU4.6666666666667Lead4.58.2400050AKME-Engineering = 0.5 Rosatom + 0.5 En+ Group (subsidiary of Basic Element Group)
MOSARTMSRRussia"Simple and inherentely safe compact heat pipe cooled reactor requiring little site infrastructure, can be rapidly deployed, and is fully automated during power operation."2400TRU Flourides from uranium and MOX LWR used fuelAdditech, INL, and Oregon State UniversityMolten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter
Fuji MSRMSRJapanInternational Thorium Molten Salt Forum (ITMSF) in JapanSealed
No recent info available - military?
100ThF4-UF4Brookhaven Technology Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Parsons Corporation, Dunedin Energy Systems, and University of California, Berkeley.
MRXLWRJapanJapan Atomic Energy Research Intitute (JAERI)16 onlinne. Oldest & smallest Indian PHWR30030LEU0.0433.5
Rapid-LFNRJapanJapan's Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI)At basic design stage50.20.510
IMRLWRJapanMisubishi Heavy Industries2020: awarded $14.3MM from DoD for further development.
2022: awarded $30MM for second phase of Project Pele
10003500.048260Integral Modular Reactor
HTTR, GTHTR-300CHTGCRJapanMisubishi Heavy Industries2020: $106.6MM microreactor project; already under $13.5MM contract w/ DOD
2022: this is the other company for the Project Pele program.
6003002030TRISODOEHigh-Temperature Test Reactor
HTR50SHTGCRJapanMisubishi Heavy IndustriesDesigned for remote power replacing diesel
Truck transportable
Designed to give electricity and potable water
Applied for design review to CNSC
50102029TRISOSecondary circuit is nitrogen180High-Temperature Test Reactor
4SFNRJapanToshiba and CRIEPIOperating temp of 600 - 700 C. Tertiary steam at 600 C for power generation, process heat, or wind/solar backup. Passive emergency cooling. Each plant has two units on alternat 7 year cycles. Scalable. Intentionally avoids Thorium b/c regulatory. Notified NRC to seek approval in 2019. CNSC & NRC selected Terrestrial for first joint technical review of advanced, non-light water nuclear reactor. Nov 2021 DOE granted $3MM to support licensing and commercialization of the IMSR. 2018 agreed with Energy Northwest to site first IMSR there.135500.1153034Primary: Fluoride carrier salt
Secondary: clean salt (ZrFr-KF)
200017Orano, BWXT Canada. Westinghouse in UK for fuel. US ORNL to advance design over 2 years in 2015 and similar agreement with Dalton Nuclear Institute in UK. Applied for US loan guarantee of up to $1.2BSuper-Safe, Small, & Simple
LSPRFNRJapan30 have been built as research reactors. Theoretical exercise in 2006 showed smallest fission reactor would be one like this.1505330LBE-Cooled Long-Life Safe Simple Portable Proliferation-Resistant Reactor)
PHWR-220HWRIndiaAtomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) & Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL)Crazy story about DOE support. Eventually supported in Dec 2020.
Factory in Camden, NJ Capable of fabricating SMR-160 and other SMR Designs.
Signed agreement to deploy SMR-160 in Czech utility CEZ
Actively exploring deploying in Oyster Creek
8002201972LEUOnline10015Passive cooling3750Mitsubishi, DOE, PSEG, SCE&GPressurized heavy water reactor
AHWR-300 LEUHWRIndiaBhaba Atomic Research CenterLimit to 75 employees to run
Estonia's Fermi Energia & Synthos SA in Poland interested. Also PKN Orlen.
284DesignThorium & LEU19.7564BWR225016DOE, Bechtel, Exelon, and MIT
Potential utility: Ontario
Advanced Heavy Water Reactor
FlexblueLWRFranceDCNS (Naval Group), Areva, EdF, and CEARight outside of Buenos Aires; Research reactor, but good start.250CancelledWater; all convection3.511Industrias Metalurgicas Pescarmona SA
Antares - SC-HTGRHTGCRFranceFramatomeBased on NHR-5 commissioned in 1989 and heated INET campus for 3 winters.
Convection circulation
Nuward NP-300LWRFranceTechnicAtome w/ Naval Group & CEA570170LEU
Seaborg CMSRMSRDenmarkSeabord Technologieshttps://www.seaborg.comInitial licensing envisaged with UK Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR); April 202 Ansaldo contractred to work on versatile lead loop facility and passive heat removal facility in Wolverhamption, UK.2502025LEU0.05Lead2017: Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) and Ansaldo NucleareCompact Molten Salt Reactor
CEFRFNRChinaChinaTwo-loop PWR Design
Gidropress = experimental desing bureau
65202010China Experimental Fast Reactor
ACPR100LWRChinaChina General Nuclear Group (CGN)Considered likely for near-term deployment. Being developed as power source in Kazakhstan, then exported.4501400.052.560
ACPR50SLWRChinaChina General Nuclear Group (CGN)Considered likely for near-term deployment. Being developed as power source in Kazakhstan, then exported.200600.05
HTR-PMHTGCRChinaChina Huaneng GroupSeemingly not being built. Design completed in 2013. BWR.2502102021TRISO0.085Continuous4090Passive convection
HHP25LWRChinaChina Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC)BWR. Shelved.100252.44.9
NHR-200LWRChinaInstitute of Nuclear and New NuclearSuper cool coolant20019891.76Nuclear Heating Reactor
HTR-10HTGCRChinaInstitute of Nuclear and New Nuclear (INET)83% capacity factor102003TRISO0.17Convection290290High-Temperature Reactor
ACP100/Linglong OneLWRChinaNuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC)3851252601000
Chinese district heat reactorsLWRChinaSee linglong one aboveIdeal for developed countries and highly proliferation-resistant. Not close to commercialization. Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 400 (400 kWt heatpipe system of 100 kWe) for space.400Pb-Bi
CNP-300LWRChinaShanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)STAR-H2 adaption of same reactor; heat up to 800 C with helium circuit and drive hydrogen production plant. SSTAR = Small Sealed Transportable Autonomous Reactor).1000325LEU0.03140Pb-BiToshiba
SNP350LWRChinaShanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)SSTAR = Small Sealed Transportable Autonomous Reactor). Prototype envisaged for 2015, but development ceased.1035350LEU0.03160Pb-Bi3.212Toshiba
CAP200/LandStar-V, CAP150, CAP50, LandStar-ILWRChinaShanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)Hilarious. Everything you need to know is in the title. Concept design for developing countries66022026042
Thorium Molten Salt ReactorMSRChinaShanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)Formed as spin-off company from royal institute of technology (KTH). Has subsidiary in Canada. Operates below 450 C to minimize corrosion. Developed novel aluminium-steel alloys highly corrosion resistant. CNSC started phase 1 in 2017, but on hold. $200MM from Essel Group Middle East for first privately funded lead-cooled power plant. Larger designs (5 and 10 MWe) exist.100102025TRISOEssel Group Middle East Subsidiary, Uniper Sweden, LeadCold,
HedianbaoFNRChinaProcess heat of 600 C. Walkaway safe. 30 day setup. Load following.10Bruce Power in Ontario and DOE in 2020
SMART from DunedinLWRCanadaDunedin Energy SystemsAll safety systems passive
Can desalinate 40,000 m^3/day
3062020KA-CARE - Saudi's King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable EnergySmall Modular Adaptable Reactor Technology
LEADIR-PS100OtherCanadaNorthern Nuclear IndustriesPrimary objective is output helium for industrial heat10036TRISO
StarCore HTRHTGCRCanadaStarCore Nuclearhttps://starcorenuclearpower.comNuclear Transmutation Energy Research Centre of Korea at Seoul University10020265NUtrECK at SNU
Integral MSRMSRCanadaTerrestrial Energyhttps://www.terrestrialenergy.comGraphite-moderated to operate as near-breeder. Can consume Pu and actinides. Also has 10 Mwe mini Fuji designed. Thorium Tech Solutions plans to commercialize4401952026LEU - UF40.057FLiBeInternational Thorium Molten Salt Forum (ITMSF) in Japan; Throium Tech Solutions working with test Halden test reactor in Norway
FBNRLWRBrazilFederal University of Rio Grande do SulDesigned for marine propulsion. Little heard of it since 2000.21870Pepple0.05
CAREMLWRArgentinaInvaniaSee NHR-200 and Landstar-I1003220140.0341
Encapsulated Nuclear Heat-SourceFNRUniversity of California, BerkeleyDrain tank under each can storage. Potentially signed 50MW TMSR for power generation or marine propulsion with Indonesia military.50U-Zr0.1320Primary: BeF2-NaF
Secondary: Na-BeF
3607.311.6Indonesian companies…
Working with Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering in South Korea to build the first one in Indonesia
KARAT-45LWRAlso have a small version (SmAHTR). 45Primary: FLiBe
Secondary: FLiNaK
Lead- and lead-bismuth cooled fast reactorsFNRTarget date for TMSR (thorium reactor) is 2032. Primary: FLiBe
Secondary: FLiNaK
Liquid Fluoride Thorium ReactorMSRPrototype hosted at INL; license rejected Q12022. Revisiting.Air
Research papers…AHR at 370 C; coolant circulates natural convection. 1.0E-5Lead (Pb-208)
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