Know someone who thinks SMRs aren’t real yet and there aren’t that many designs? Just send them the link to this page.
Small Modular Reactors are nuclear power plants which are typically less than 300 MWe. While this is smaller than the conventional 1,000 MWe power plants in operation all over the world today, it still means they’re massive power plants. They have historically been promised as a way for the nuclear industry to innovate and improve by shortening construction timelines, improving manufacturing practices, and reducing initial development and capital costs.
A detailed and thorough article about SMRs may be helpful, but it’s not efficient at communicating large amounts of information – and there are a lot of SMRs. Which ones are the best? Where are they being built? Which companies are building them?
I’ve worked to put together a table answering many of those questions utilizing the World Nuclear Association’s post on SMRs as the backbone for the data. It’s certainly not complete, but it covers many of the historical designs as well as those in development or operation all over the world.
If you find an error or find something missing, comment! Or send me a note privately and ask me to update it.
The IAEA also has an awesome tool available for advanced reactors, but it’s not specific to SMRs.
Notes on using this tool:
- The search function is invaluable. Try searching “NuScale” or “FNR”.
- The format of this table currently imperfect.
|Design||Type||Country||Company||Website||Description||MWt||MWe||Status||Construct Begin||Online||Fuel||Enrichment||Re-Fuel Interval (years)||Design Life (years)||Thermal Power (GJ/h)||Burnup (GWD/t)||Cooling||Weight (tonnes)||d_reactor (m)||l_reactor (m)||Cap $/kWe||LCOE FOAK ($/MWh)||LCOE NOAK ($/MWh)||Partners||Acronym Description|
|Adams Engine||HTGCR||USA||Adams Atomic Engines||https://atomicinsights.com||Derived from icebreakers. Variant is KLT-20, designed for refueling every 10 years. One of the first private SMR designs put forward by Rod Adams in 1995.||10||Shelved||80||Forced circulation & convection for emergency|
|Integral Fast Reactor, ARC-100||FNR||USA||Advanced Reactor Concepts LLC||https://www.arcenergy.co||Replacing KLT reactors||260||100||LEU; can burn waste from LWR or Pu||10.1% - 17.2%||20||Forced circulation & convection for emergency||2600||14.6||16|
|STAR-LM, STAR-H2, SSTAR||FNR||USA||Argonne National Lab||400||175||U||15||Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor|
|SSTAR||FNR||USA||Argonne National Lab||45||20||U||25||Natural circulation||640||4.6||23||2850||82||58||Fluor||Small Sealed Transportable Autonomous Reactor|
|mPower||LWR||USA||Babcock & Wilcox (B&W)||https://www.ans.org/news/article-1933/mpower-consortium-halts-project/||DOE promised $226MM in 2012; paid $111MM|
"Expects design cert by 2018 and operational by 2022?"
Struggled finding funding…
Project shelved. $375MM spent on program by 2016.
|500||195||Cancelled||LEU||0.0495||60||35||Water cooled, but 155 MWe air-cooled version also planned||20||4.5||23||Bechtel|
|BWXT Advanced Nuclear Reactor (BANR)||HTGCR||USA||BWXT||Passive safety - no operator intervention for 7 days.|
Daily load following from 20% to 100% (5% change per minute)
Continuous load changes of +/- 10% power at 2% per minute
Passed NRC safety evaluation in 2015, but no customers so not moving forward
|Mark 1 Pebble Bed FHR||MSR||USA||Consortium||https://fhr.nuc.berkeley.edu/pb-fhr-technology/||Requires barge to move. Desalinates 40,000 m^3/day.||236||100||Natural circulation; water cooled||600||8.5||13|
|Elysium MCSFR||MSR||USA||Elysium Industries||https://www.elysiumindustries.com||3000||1200||HALEU||0.15||2.8||11.2||Daewoo Shipbuilding & Engineering|
|Flibe LFTR||MSR||USA||Flibe Energy||500,000 m^3/day desal|
Enter design pre-licensing phase with ASN in 2022.
1 billion euros promised for project.
TARGETING REPLACING 300 - 400 MW COAL PLANTS
Essentially a PWR reactor for French Navy
|BWRX-300||LWR||USA||GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy||https://nuclear.gepower.com/build-a-plant/products/nuclear-power-plants-overview/bwrx-300||Functions under CNNC - China National Nuclear Corporation|
Passive safety. Installed underground. Seismic tollerance of 300 gal.
Whole steam supply system shipped in single module
12000 m^3 desal
Construction = 5 years
|300||Advanced Design||2028||2.15||CNNC, NPIC, and CNPE (China Nuclear Power Engineeirng)|
|PRISM, Natrium||FNR||USA||GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy||No operator required for 7 days|
Installed below grade
Cap150 version is earlier version
|840||311||Advanced Design||4||122||4000||160||Prism Reactor Innovated Small Module|
|Gen4 (Hyperion) Power Module||FNR||USA||Gen4 Energy / Hyperion Power||Passive cooling; operate at 310C;||70||25||0.1975||10||Passive||4.4||17|
|TRIGA||LWR||USA||General Atomics||https://www.ga.com/about||Passive cooling; operate at 310C; announced building in Bohai Shipyard in Huludao in 2016, but no news since.||64||16.4||0.2||1.5||Passive||2.5||7.4|
|GT-MHR||HTGCR||USA||General Atomics||200 t/d desal|
29,800 t displacement. True floating nuclear power plant (FNPP)
|350||150||0.155||220||29||163||Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor|
|EM^2||HTGCR||USA||General Atomics||Submerged 15 km offshore reactor. Project cancelled||500||265||30||12000||15||100||Energy Multiipler Module|
|GA-Framatome Fast Modular Reactor||HTGCR||USA||General Atomics||Annual maintenance campaign, but otherwise super simiple.||50||2032||9||Natural circulation||180||GA-EMS = Electromagnetic Systems Group|
|Holtec SMR-160||LWR||USA||Holtec International & SMR Inventec||https://holtecinternational.com||Target year to start license by 2020, but design dropped?||525||160||Advanced Design||2017||Uranium Dioxide||2||80||Kyoto University, Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC). Funded by METI|
|Hybrid SMR Concept||HTGCR||USA||Hybrid Power Technologies LLC||https://www.hybridpwr.com||Assembled in 500 days|
Working to partner with the US, Jordan, Turkey, and Czech
Designed 3 gens of naval reactors since 1950s and SIR of 330 Mwe in 1980s
|600||850||4.5||11.3||5100||45.85||Assystem, Atkins, BAM Nuttall, Laing O'Rourke, National Nuclear Laboratory, Nuclear AMRC, Jacobs, The Welding Institue, and Exelon|
|Sodium cooled fast reactors||FNR||USA||INL; Experimental Breeder Reactor||Operates at relatively low temp; PWR, but pool type||62.5||19||1963||1963||SNF||30||Water + perfluorocarbon||EBR-II|
|Kairos Power FHR and Hermes||MSR||USA||Kairos Power||https://kairospower.com||Full safety test performed in 2004. Wow!||320||140||2026||TRISO particles||0.1975||Helium||Flouride High Temp Reactor|
|ThorCon MSR||MSR||USA||Martingale / ThorCon||https://thorconpower.com||Concept design complete in 2015; detailed engineering design complete in 2018. Calling for bids to construct.||550||250||U-233 & LEU U-235||0.197||4||OKBM Afrikantov is designer; Atomproekt is architect general; SRI Luch involved in fuel design.|
|MicroNuclear Molten Salt Battery||MSR||USA||MicroNuclear LLC||https://micronucleartech.com||Fits on 4 ha site|
Rapid load following of 25% to 100%
Fuel just used once
In talks of replacing coal-fired capacity with 4-pack installs including South Carolina Electricity & Gas (SCEG)
2016 GAIN award of $53MM
2021: 7 year, $2.4B project with ARDP to build Xe-100 in WA
2017: Signed agreement with Jordan AEC
2020: Initiated vendor design review w/ CNSC (Kinetrics leading efforts)
2016: signed agreement to work with Southern Nuclear Operating Company to develop resepective designs.
2018: design 50% complete. Finalized by 2022 or 2023
2019 w/ Global Nuclear Fuel setup HALEU TRISO production at Wilmington plant
Also talking to Centrus Energy to dev TRISO fab tech and w/ Tokai in Japan
|20||LEU - UF4||0.05||10||Helium||BWX Technology, Oregon State University, Teledyne-Brown Engineering, SGL Group, INL, and ORNL. Also Burns & McDonnel Engineering in 2016||MsNB|
|NuScale Power Module||LWR||USA||NuScale||https://www.nuscalepower.com||47% thermal efficiency|
100,000 t/yr of H2 production
Originally used to burn weapons Pu
Can be powered completely with transuranics from LWRs
Smaller verion (RS-MHR = Remote Site Modular Helium Reactor) proposed
|250||77||Licensing||2029||LEU||0.0495||2||60||OKBM Afrikantov & Fuji. Areva formerly involved|
|NuScale microreactor||HPMR||USA||NuScale||https://www.nuscalepower.com||53% net thermal efficiency|
Can use recycled fuel
Building 4 in 42 months
12 year development & licensing period.
|10||Licensing||Entirely passive||Chicago Bridge & Iron, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and INL|
|AHTR/FHR||MSR||USA||Oak Ridge National Lab||https://www.ornl.gov||20% per min load following |
Separate group from GA's Energy Group developing EM^2
Best known for EM aircraft launch & recovery systems on US Aircraft carriers.
|125||50||TRISO particles||0.1975||4||Framatome||Advanced Hight Temperature Reactor|
|Aurora||HPMR||USA||Oklo||https://oklo.com||Requires no skill to operate. Larger version that is 1 Mwe||1.5||2026||HALEU U-Zr||20||20||2||6.5||Mitsubishi Research Institute and funded by JAERI|
|DEER from Radix||LWR||USA||Radix Power & Energy Corporation||https://www.radixeng.com||Corrosion is the problem. Only capable with current metallurgy up to 650 C. Also yields toxic polonium (alpha-emitter with 138 day half-life). Pb-Bi melts at 125 C and boils at 1670 C. |
Russia released a bunch of classified info in 1998 about submarines. Interest incresed then.
|50||TRIGA pepple or TRISO||Deployable Electric Energy Reactor|
|Molten Chloride Fast Reactor||MSR||USA||Southern Company Services||Portable nuclear batttery pack based on Russian sub design.||2026|
|Natrium||FNR||USA||TerraPower||https://www.terrapower.com||2 MWt pilot plant planned||840||500||?||4||122||Primary: FLiBe|
|Prism Reactor Innovated Small Module|
|Transatomic Power||MSR||USA||Transatomic Power (TAP)||http://www.transatomicpower.com||Formed by nuke consultant and Director of Nuclear Engineering at Ohio State university and University of Idaho.||1250||550||LEU - UF4||0.05||Fl, Na, Li|
|USNC MMR||HTGCR||USA||Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation (UNSC)||https://usnc.com||Funded by Founders Fund. Cease operations in Sep 2018 and make IP free online.||30||10||2023||2025||20||Primary: LiF|
|Micro Modular Reactor|
|Westinghouse SMR||LWR||USA||Westinghouse||https://www.westinghousenuclear.com/new-plants/small-modular-reactor||Smaller and cheaper version of Moltex reactor. Contract signed with New Brunswick Power for deployment at Point Lepreau in Canada.||800||225||LEU||0.05||2||60||Primary: ZrF4-KF|
Secondary: Nitrate Salt
|New Brunswick Power|
|Westinghouse LFR||FNR||USA||Westinghouse||http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/new-plants/evinci-micro-reactor||Promoted by Core Power for UK marine use. Few other details available. Several awards from grants from DOE.||300||TerraPower, INL, Core Power, Orano Federal Services, EPRI, and 3M Company.||Lead-cooled Fast Reactor|
|Westinghouse eVinci||HPMR||USA||Westinghouse||http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/new-plants/evinci-micro-reactor||Designed to load follow. Range of sizes available. Passive safety. Negative temperature and void coefficients. Incredible newsletter. Crowdfunding Q1 2022.||1.6||2022||UO||3||40|
|Xe-Mobile||HTGCR||USA||X-energy||x-energy.com||First Danish investment into fission research since ban on nuclear power in 1985. First full-scale prototype power barge by 2025.||5||3||3||Fuel Salt: Li-7 Fl|
Secondary Salt: FLiNaK
|Moltex SSR||MSR||UK||Moltex Energy||https://www.moltexenergy.com||Phase 1 design approval completed with CNSC in 2019. |
CNSC environmental assessment began 2019.
2020: signed with Hyundai Engineering and Korea AERI to do a project.
2020: Signed with Poland's Synthos and applied to Polish govt for financing industrial scale hydrogen projects.
2021: U of Illinois announces plan to install MMR as power source and research reactor at Urbana-Champaign campus.
2018: CNL launched SMR review (separate from CNSC) to have SMR constructed at Chalk River by 2026. GFP/OPG/USNC. Online by 2025. Followed by one at INL and Uof Ill
Also building renewable project with 10 MMR units for 120 MWe of generation and 1 TWh per year for remote defence basis. Power cost $10/MWh
|150||Helium to molten salt||Global First Power (Jointly owned by UNSC and Ontario Power Generation)||Stable Salt Reactor|
|Moltex SSR-W300||MSR||UK||Moltex Energy||https://www.moltexenergy.com||Runs independent organic Rankine cycle. Subcritical Power Modules (SPMs) go critical by spacing. Rapid load following. 650 - 850 deg C.||750||300||2030+||25% PuCl3, 30%UCl3, and 45% KCl||200||Helium||5769.2307692308||Argonne National Laboratory & US Army||Stable Salt Reactor|
|Rolls-Royce SMR||LWR||UK||Rolls-Royce||Very easily portable. Sealed, no moving parts. Planned in 2010 to submit design cert to NRC in 2012. But.. What happened? 2012 changed name to Gen4 Power? Went out of business on 4/1/18 after missing grants from DOE in Jan 2016.||1350||470||2030||0.0495||2||60||60||Lead||1.5||2.5|
|U-Battery||HTGCR||UK||Urenco||Refueling online. Spent canisters cooled in pool for a year, then salt freezes. Reprocessing is simple and possible. Multiple versions: SSR-W (Wasteburner), SSR-U, and SSR-Th (Thorium). GridReserve version has heat storage. SSR-W is simplest and cheapest.||10||4||2028||0.2||5||Primary: 60% NaCl, 20% PuCl2, 20% UCl3|
Decay Heat: Natural convection
|Supercritical CO2 Direct Cycle Fast Reactor Concept||HTGCR||UK||Passive shut down and decay heat removal. Awarded $629MM cost share program from DOE (DOE share $303MM). TVA helps with engineering, ops, licensing support for Hermes. TVA has early site permit at Clinch River site. 2021 submitted prelim safety analysis report to NRC.||Primary: FLiBe|
|Oak Ridge National Lab and TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)|
|SEALER||FNR||Sweden||LeadCold Reactors (Blykalla Reaktorer)||Based on UK's Dragon reactor from 1975. |
Based on design of Fort St. Vrain reactor in USA - wow!
Produce 750 ℃ process heat or 4 MWe back-up & off-grid power.
Awarded contract for feasibility study by UK govt in 2018 for Advanced Reactor Feasibility and Development project. 2020 went into phase 2.
Selected for CNSC review in 2017 and first design (in 2019) to complete 4 phases of CNL's review process for siting an SMR at Chalk River Labs in Ontario
|8||3||2030||Uo||0.2||30||Helium||Consortium, but TU-Delft & Manchester University. Also Wood, Laing O'Rourke, Cammell Laird, and Kinectrics||Swedish Advanced Lead Reactor|
|SMART from KAERI||LWR||South Korea||KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Intitute)||30 MWt started up in 1998.|
Main purpose was producing hydrogen from water.
|330||100||2028||LEU||0.04||3||60||Helium||Toshiba/IHI and Fuji||System-Integraded Modular Advanced Reactor|
|Korean Fast Reactor Designs||FNR||South Korea||KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Intitute)||Building EH HTGR in 2019||35||20||60||Helium||JAEA & Penultimate Power|
|BANDI-60S||LWR||South Korea||Kepco Engineering & Construction||Rationale: replace conventional reactor tech for power and provide for future hydrogen production. |
INET in charge of R&D
43.7% thermal efficiency targeted
Capital cost could be as low as 50% to 75% of small HTR-PM
Flexible loads (40 - 100%); no loss of thermal efficiency, and rapid change in power settings.
|200||60||5||60||35||Helium||5.7||25||1500||50||China Nuclear Engineering & Construction (CNEC) (32.5%); Tsinghua University's INET (20%)|
|PBMR and derivatives||HTGCR||South Africa||PBMR Ltd consortium led by Eskom||https://www.thorium100.com||Uses electromagnetic pumps. Inactive license application at the NRC. Also has a L-4S version (lead bismuth cooled version)||200||80||2030||Continuous||90||Sodium||1.2||2.5||2500||50||SSTAR & Westinghouse|
|SVBR-100||FNR||Russia||AKME-engineering||280||100||U-Pu||0.163||8||60||Lead-bismuth fast reactor|
|VVER-300 (V-478)||LWR||Russia||Gidropress||Completion of technical design by ~2024||850||300||31||Natural circulation||8||15||Water-Water Energetic Reactor|
|VK-300||LWR||Russia||NIKIET||Supercharges a natural gas turbine for 85% efficiency|
Applied for 2nd round of DOE funding in 2013.
|BREST-300||FNR||Russia||NIKIET||Secondary circuit - not actual reactor||700||300||2026||U+Pu||0.135||6|
|Russian HTR for Indonesia||HTGCR||Russia||Nukem Technologies||Stopped funding in 2010|
Most staff emigrated to USA and joined X-energy
|10||5.9||15||Mitsubishi Heavy Industries|
|KLT-40S||LWR||Russia||OKBM Afrikantov||Downloaded PDF||Operated for 30 years. Also referred to as Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)||150||35||2019||LEU||0.186||4||12||45||Sodium|
|RITM-200M, RITM-200N||LWR||Russia||OKBM Afrikantov||Downloaded PDF||GE's solution to closing fuel cycle. Capable of breeding fissile plutonium. GE & TerraPower building fast reactor for INL (Versatile Test Reactor, VTR). Also building Natrium concept.||175||50||2024||2028||LEU||0.1999||12||60||730||Southern Nuclear Operating Company, High Bridge Energy Development Co., Excelon, and URS Nuclear|
|VBER-150||LWR||Russia||OKBM Afrikantov||Part of DOE's Advanced Reactor Demonstration Program (ARDP). Cost sharing program. License application submit in 2026. $1B estimated.||350||110||LEU||4.7||50||Primary: Sodium|
Secondary: molten salt; can store heat and use it to make steam in heat exchanger.
|Southern Nuclear Operating Company, High Bridge Energy Development Co., Excelon, and URS Nuclear, Bechtel|
|VBER-300||LWR||Russia||OKBM Afrikantov||Can load follow and operate with 40% thermal efficiency. Can be paired with supercritical CO2 tertiary circuit. Working on licensing with CNSC. 2019 done with pre-licensing. 2021 offered the design to Energoatom in Ukraine.||917||325||LEU||4.95||6||60||1900||125||50||GEH, New Brunswick Power, Moltex|
|ABV, ABV-6M||LWR||Russia||OKBM Afrikantov||Sodium cooled at 530 C and operating since 2010.||45||18||LEU||0.197||12||40||95|
|UNITHERM||LWR||Russia||Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE)||Russia has 70 reactor-years experience. Can't generate weapons grade Pu. Fuel can be recycled indefinitely. Part of Pilot Demonstration Energy Complex (PDEC). Enables fully closed fuel cycle on one site.||30||6.6||Concept||25||25||Lead|
|SHELF||LWR||Russia||Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE)||80 reactor years experience with 7 subs in Russia (155 MWt Pb-Bi). Project dropped in 2018??||28||10||Concept||LEU||4.6666666666667||Lead||4.5||8.2||4000||50||AKME-Engineering = 0.5 Rosatom + 0.5 En+ Group (subsidiary of Basic Element Group)|
|MOSART||MSR||Russia||"Simple and inherentely safe compact heat pipe cooled reactor requiring little site infrastructure, can be rapidly deployed, and is fully automated during power operation."||2400||TRU Flourides from uranium and MOX LWR used fuel||Additech, INL, and Oregon State University||Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter|
|Fuji MSR||MSR||Japan||International Thorium Molten Salt Forum (ITMSF) in Japan||Sealed|
No recent info available - military?
|100||ThF4-UF4||Brookhaven Technology Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Parsons Corporation, Dunedin Energy Systems, and University of California, Berkeley.|
|MRX||LWR||Japan||Japan Atomic Energy Research Intitute (JAERI)||16 onlinne. Oldest & smallest Indian PHWR||300||30||LEU||0.043||3.5|
|Rapid-L||FNR||Japan||Japan's Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI)||At basic design stage||5||0.2||0.5||10|
|IMR||LWR||Japan||Misubishi Heavy Industries||2020: awarded $14.3MM from DoD for further development. |
2022: awarded $30MM for second phase of Project Pele
|1000||350||0.048||2||60||Integral Modular Reactor|
|HTTR, GTHTR-300C||HTGCR||Japan||Misubishi Heavy Industries||2020: $106.6MM microreactor project; already under $13.5MM contract w/ DOD|
2022: this is the other company for the Project Pele program.
|600||300||2030||TRISO||DOE||High-Temperature Test Reactor|
|HTR50S||HTGCR||Japan||Misubishi Heavy Industries||Designed for remote power replacing diesel|
Designed to give electricity and potable water
Applied for design review to CNSC
|50||10||2029||TRISO||Secondary circuit is nitrogen||180||High-Temperature Test Reactor|
|4S||FNR||Japan||Toshiba and CRIEPI||Operating temp of 600 - 700 C. Tertiary steam at 600 C for power generation, process heat, or wind/solar backup. Passive emergency cooling. Each plant has two units on alternat 7 year cycles. Scalable. Intentionally avoids Thorium b/c regulatory. Notified NRC to seek approval in 2019. CNSC & NRC selected Terrestrial for first joint technical review of advanced, non-light water nuclear reactor. Nov 2021 DOE granted $3MM to support licensing and commercialization of the IMSR. 2018 agreed with Energy Northwest to site first IMSR there.||135||50||0.115||30||34||Primary: Fluoride carrier salt|
Secondary: clean salt (ZrFr-KF)
|2000||17||Orano, BWXT Canada. Westinghouse in UK for fuel. US ORNL to advance design over 2 years in 2015 and similar agreement with Dalton Nuclear Institute in UK. Applied for US loan guarantee of up to $1.2B||Super-Safe, Small, & Simple|
|LSPR||FNR||Japan||30 have been built as research reactors. Theoretical exercise in 2006 showed smallest fission reactor would be one like this.||150||53||30||LBE-Cooled Long-Life Safe Simple Portable Proliferation-Resistant Reactor)|
|PHWR-220||HWR||India||Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) & Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL)||Crazy story about DOE support. Eventually supported in Dec 2020.|
Factory in Camden, NJ Capable of fabricating SMR-160 and other SMR Designs.
Signed agreement to deploy SMR-160 in Czech utility CEZ
Actively exploring deploying in Oyster Creek
|800||220||1972||LEU||Online||100||15||Passive cooling||3750||Mitsubishi, DOE, PSEG, SCE&G||Pressurized heavy water reactor|
|AHWR-300 LEU||HWR||India||Bhaba Atomic Research Center||Limit to 75 employees to run|
Estonia's Fermi Energia & Synthos SA in Poland interested. Also PKN Orlen.
|284||Design||Thorium & LEU||19.75||64||BWR||2250||16||DOE, Bechtel, Exelon, and MIT|
Potential utility: Ontario
|Advanced Heavy Water Reactor|
|Flexblue||LWR||France||DCNS (Naval Group), Areva, EdF, and CEA||Right outside of Buenos Aires; Research reactor, but good start.||250||Cancelled||Water; all convection||3.5||11||Industrias Metalurgicas Pescarmona SA|
|Antares - SC-HTGR||HTGCR||France||Framatome||Based on NHR-5 commissioned in 1989 and heated INET campus for 3 winters.|
|Nuward NP-300||LWR||France||TechnicAtome w/ Naval Group & CEA||570||170||LEU|
|Seaborg CMSR||MSR||Denmark||Seabord Technologies||https://www.seaborg.com||Initial licensing envisaged with UK Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR); April 202 Ansaldo contractred to work on versatile lead loop facility and passive heat removal facility in Wolverhamption, UK.||250||2025||LEU||0.05||Lead||2017: Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) and Ansaldo Nucleare||Compact Molten Salt Reactor|
|CEFR||FNR||China||China||Two-loop PWR Design|
Gidropress = experimental desing bureau
|65||20||2010||China Experimental Fast Reactor|
|ACPR100||LWR||China||China General Nuclear Group (CGN)||Considered likely for near-term deployment. Being developed as power source in Kazakhstan, then exported.||450||140||0.05||2.5||60|
|ACPR50S||LWR||China||China General Nuclear Group (CGN)||Considered likely for near-term deployment. Being developed as power source in Kazakhstan, then exported.||200||60||0.05|
|HTR-PM||HTGCR||China||China Huaneng Group||Seemingly not being built. Design completed in 2013. BWR.||250||210||2021||TRISO||0.085||Continuous||40||90||Passive convection|
|HHP25||LWR||China||China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC)||BWR. Shelved.||100||25||2.4||4.9|
|NHR-200||LWR||China||Institute of Nuclear and New Nuclear||Super cool coolant||200||1989||1.7||6||Nuclear Heating Reactor|
|HTR-10||HTGCR||China||Institute of Nuclear and New Nuclear (INET)||83% capacity factor||10||2003||TRISO||0.17||Convection||290||290||High-Temperature Reactor|
|ACP100/Linglong One||LWR||China||Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC)||385||125||2||60||1000|
|Chinese district heat reactors||LWR||China||See linglong one above||Ideal for developed countries and highly proliferation-resistant. Not close to commercialization. Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 400 (400 kWt heatpipe system of 100 kWe) for space.||400||Pb-Bi|
|CNP-300||LWR||China||Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)||STAR-H2 adaption of same reactor; heat up to 800 C with helium circuit and drive hydrogen production plant. SSTAR = Small Sealed Transportable Autonomous Reactor).||1000||325||LEU||0.03||1||40||Pb-Bi||Toshiba|
|SNP350||LWR||China||Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)||SSTAR = Small Sealed Transportable Autonomous Reactor). Prototype envisaged for 2015, but development ceased.||1035||350||LEU||0.03||1||60||Pb-Bi||3.2||12||Toshiba|
|CAP200/LandStar-V, CAP150, CAP50, LandStar-I||LWR||China||Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)||Hilarious. Everything you need to know is in the title. Concept design for developing countries||660||220||2||60||42|
|Thorium Molten Salt Reactor||MSR||China||Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI)||Formed as spin-off company from royal institute of technology (KTH). Has subsidiary in Canada. Operates below 450 C to minimize corrosion. Developed novel aluminium-steel alloys highly corrosion resistant. CNSC started phase 1 in 2017, but on hold. $200MM from Essel Group Middle East for first privately funded lead-cooled power plant. Larger designs (5 and 10 MWe) exist.||100||10||2025||TRISO||Essel Group Middle East Subsidiary, Uniper Sweden, LeadCold,|
|Hedianbao||FNR||China||Process heat of 600 C. Walkaway safe. 30 day setup. Load following.||10||Bruce Power in Ontario and DOE in 2020|
|SMART from Dunedin||LWR||Canada||Dunedin Energy Systems||All safety systems passive|
Can desalinate 40,000 m^3/day
|30||6||20||20||KA-CARE - Saudi's King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy||Small Modular Adaptable Reactor Technology|
|LEADIR-PS100||Other||Canada||Northern Nuclear Industries||Primary objective is output helium for industrial heat||100||36||TRISO|
|StarCore HTR||HTGCR||Canada||StarCore Nuclear||https://starcorenuclearpower.com||Nuclear Transmutation Energy Research Centre of Korea at Seoul University||100||2026||5||NUtrECK at SNU|
|Integral MSR||MSR||Canada||Terrestrial Energy||https://www.terrestrialenergy.com||Graphite-moderated to operate as near-breeder. Can consume Pu and actinides. Also has 10 Mwe mini Fuji designed. Thorium Tech Solutions plans to commercialize||440||195||2026||LEU - UF4||0.05||7||FLiBe||International Thorium Molten Salt Forum (ITMSF) in Japan; Throium Tech Solutions working with test Halden test reactor in Norway|
|FBNR||LWR||Brazil||Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul||Designed for marine propulsion. Little heard of it since 2000.||218||70||Pepple||0.05|
|CAREM||LWR||Argentina||Invania||See NHR-200 and Landstar-I||100||32||2014||0.034||1|
|Encapsulated Nuclear Heat-Source||FNR||University of California, Berkeley||Drain tank under each can storage. Potentially signed 50MW TMSR for power generation or marine propulsion with Indonesia military.||50||U-Zr||0.13||20||Primary: BeF2-NaF|
Working with Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering in South Korea to build the first one in Indonesia
|KARAT-45||LWR||Also have a small version (SmAHTR).||45||Primary: FLiBe|
|Lead- and lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors||FNR||Target date for TMSR (thorium reactor) is 2032.||Primary: FLiBe|
|Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor||MSR||Prototype hosted at INL; license rejected Q12022. Revisiting.||Air|
|Research papers…||AHR||https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/non-power-nuclear-applications/radioisotopes-research/research-reactors.aspx||Steam at 370 C; coolant circulates natural convection.||1.0E-5||Lead (Pb-208)|